The grading system is designed to be standards-based, i.e. your grade should reflect your current understanding, not an average of all attempts.  However, I cannot test everything on the last day, so over the course of semester you will demonstrate mastery of all the topics.

35% Content Badges

You will be quizzed frequently, and each question will belong to one of the following badges.  Grades will be 0, 0.5 or 1, representing no, partial and full mastery.  When you get a badge, you have earned that badge from that point on.  There will be many attempts.  Your grade will depend on how many badges you have earned.

  • Sets I: basic definitions (set, element, equality, empty, cardinality)
  • Sets II:  operations (union, intersection, difference, universe, complement, Venn diagram)
  • Sets III:  Set-builder notation
  • Sets IV: ordered pairs, Cartesian products and powers, subset and powersets, including cardinality
  • Counting I: basic (subsets, independent choices)
  • Counting II: advanced (possible overcounting)
  • Logic I:  boolean expressions and truth tables
  • Logic II:  converse and contrapositive
  • Logic III:  quantifiers (for all, there exists)
  • Logic IV:  negating statements
  • Logic V:  logical equivalence, logical laws and algebraic manipulations of boolean expressions
  • Relations I: basic definitions, ordered pairs and arrow diagrams
  • Relations II: properties of relations (transitive, symmetric, reflexive, equivalence)
  • Modular Arithmetic (computation, inverse by verification)
  • Functions I:  definitions (domain, codomain, image and preimage)
  • Functions II:  definitions (injective, surjective and bijective)
  • Function III:  composition of functions, and inverse functions
  • Proofs I:  setting up a proof by contradiction
  • Proofs II:  setting up a proof by contrapositive
  • Proofs III:  setting up an inductive proof
  • Synthesis I:  questions involving synthesis of the topics
  • Synthesis II:  questions involving synthesis and creativity
  • Synthesis III:  questions involving synthesis and more creativity, and/or thorough textbook reading

There are 23 badges.  Each one has an attainment score of 0, 0.5 or 1.  Your grade will be (sum of scores) / 23.

Missed quizzes are zero and there are no makeup quizzes.  You will have many opportunities to test each badge until it is earned.

40% Proof (20% Reasoning, 20% Writing)

Click here for my grading rubric.  You will be quizzed frequently (once weekly, for a total of 13), and you will be assigned two scores (one for reasoning, one for writing).  If you are unable to provide a useful sample to evaluate writing (e.g. you can’t obtain even a partial argument), you will not obtain a writing score (i.e. zero), or can only receive partial credit.

Your score will be made up of your best 7 quizzes of 13 total.  Missed quizzes are zero, and there are no makeup quizzes.

5% Groupwork


There’s a 5% presentation/participation/groupwork grade in the class.  In light of the changes to our groupwork requirements in the second half of semester, I’m replacing the system with the following simpler, more generous system.  This should not hurt your grade.

  • You will get a full 5% if you present at least 2 times, and scribe at least 2 times for a group, and hand in at least 2 decent efforts at the individual works on canvas.
  • You will also get the full 5% if you do 5 of those 6 things.
  • Your grade will otherwise be n% (out of 5%) where n is the number of tasks above you have done decently.


You will meet with your study groups weekly.  As a group you will do homework to hand in; one scribe will be elected.  Every person must scribe at least twice during the whole semester.  On Fridays you will share your groupwork with the class.  Every person must present at least twice during the whole semester (scribe must not present).  Groupwork will be graded, and the grade will count for the whole group.

Group homework will be graded on a simple 0, 0.5, 1 system (nothing, partial, complete).  Presentations will be graded similarly.  Learning gains (effort, demonstration of effective thought process) count much more than final correctness in this situation.  Homework and presentations will be averaged to give your groupwork grade.  If you do not scribe or present the required number of times, your groupwork grade will be multiplied by (n/4) where n depends on the number of times you did.  Therefore if you do not scribe or present, it will be 0.

Whether you are doing your homework will also count toward this grade.  The reason is that groupwork will not progress well unless everyone has done their preparation.  I will periodically check daily homework for completeness as I circulate groups in class, and keep a record.  I will multiply your grade by the percentage of time you do homework.  So:

groupwork grade = (handed-in-work + presentations)*(scribing/presenting factor)*(homework diligence factor).

In other words, provided you are doing your daily work and groupwork diligently, and you are helping your groupmates to scribe and present to the best of their ability, you will get a full 5% or nearly so.  If you are not doing some part of this, your grade will suffer.

20% Traditional Final Exam

This is what we’re all working toward.  The final will look like the in-class quizzes and be graded similarly, but is traditional in the sense that you only get one chance at the test.  It will be designed to take 2 hours to write, and you will be given 2.5 hours to do so.